American Alligator at Circle B Bar Reserve in Florida.
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Meet the Amazing Alligator

 

 

Introduction  |  Taxonomy, Phylogeny & Etymology  |  Distribution & Population  |  Ecology

Anatomy & Physiology  |  Diet & Digestion  Thermoregulation  |  Reproduction  |  Neonate Care  |  Ethology

Survival  |  Human Conflict  |  Cultural & Commercial Impact  |  Prime Observation Locations

Bibliography  |  Filmography  |  Suggested Publications  References

 

SPECIES PROFILE

An alli gator afloat in water reflecting the gold of a sunset.AMERICAN ALLIGATOR

Alligator mississippiensis

 

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Reptilia

Superorder: Crocodylomorpha

Order: Crocodilia

Family: Alligatoridae

Genus: Alligator

 

(Image: © istockphoto/LarryLynch)

 

 

References

 

This list applies to the articles, "Meet the Amazing Alligator", "An Alligator Safety Guide" and to the introductory article of this website located on the home page.

 

 

ANDERSON, L. 2014. Behind the alligator pet trade. FastCompany.com [cited 26 October 2014]; 26 October 2014. Available from: http://www.fastcompany.com/3037273/pet-week/behind-the-alligator-pet-trade. HTML

 

ASSOCIATED PRESS, THE. 2012. Most gators in 3 southern Miss. counties. JacksonFreePress.com, 27 September 2012, [cited18 March 2017]. Available from:  http://www.jacksonfreepress.com/news/2012/sep/27/most-gators-3-southern-miss-counties/. HTML

 

AVERY, A. N. 2006. Reptile bites. Pages 440-458 in Agricultural Medicine: A Practical Guide, J. E. Lessenger, ed.. New York, New York: Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. PREVIEW

 

BARTRAM, W. 1792. Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and west Florida, the Cherokee country, the extensive territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the country of the Chactaws; containing, an account of the soil and natural productions of those regions, together with observations on the manners of the Indians. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: James & Johnson. 522pp. MULTI-FORMAT

 

BEHLER, J. L., and D. A. BEHLER. 1998. Alligators & Crocodiles; Minneapolis, Minnesota: Voyageur Press.. 72pp.

 

BRISBIN, I. L., JR., E. A. STANDORA, and M. J. VARGO. 1982. Body Temperatures and Behavior of American Alligators during Cold Winter Weather. American Midland Naturalist. 107(2):209-218. OPTIONS

 

BROCHU, C. A. 1999. Phylogenetics, Taxonomy and Historical Biogeography of the Alligatoroidea. Memoir (Society of Vertebrate Paleontology) Vol. 6, Cranial Morphology of Alligator mississippiensis and Phylogeny of Alligatoroidea. pp. 9-100.

 

CAMPBELL, G. R., and A. L. WINTERBOTHAM. 1985 Jaws Too! The Natural History of Crocodilians with Emphasis on Sanibel Island’s Alligators; Missouri: Sutherland Publishing. I-VIII + 1-267pp.

 

CHEN, I. H., W. YANG, and M. A. MEYERS. 2014. Alligator osteoderms: Mechanical behavior and hierarcichal structure. Material Science and Engineering C. 35:441-448. OPTIONS

 

CROCODILE SPECIALIST GROUP. 2016. American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). [cited 12 November 2016]. IUCN Crocodile Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland. Available from: http://www.iucncsg.org/content

_images/attachments/species_descriptions/American%20Alligator.pdfPDF

 

DAVIS, L. M., T. C. GLENN, R. M. ELSEY, H. C. DESSAUER,  and R. H.  SAWYER. 2001. Multiple paternity and mating patterns in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. Molecular Ecology. 10(4):1011-1024. OPTIONS

 

DELANY, M. F. 1990. Late summer diet of juvenile American alligators. Journal of Herpetology. 24:418–421. PDF

 

DELANY, M. F., and C. L. ABERCROMBIE. 1986. American Alligator Food Habits in Northcentral Florida. Journal of Wildlife Management. 50(2) 348-353. OPTIONS

 

DELANY, M. F., T. C. HINES, and C. L. ABERCROMBIE, III. 1986. Selected public’s reaction following harvest of American alligators. In Proceedings of the Annual Conference of Southeastern Fish and Wildlife Agencies. 40:349–352. PDF

 

DELANY, M. F., S. B. LINDA, and C. T. MOORE. 1999. Diet and Condition of American Alligators in 4 Florida Lakes. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeast Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. 53:375-389. PDF

 

DELANY, M. F., and C. T. MOORE. 1988. Food habits of juvenile American alligators in a Florida lake. Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission Bureau of Wildlife Research Annual Report, Study No.7562:22p. OPTIONS

 

DELANY, M. F., A. R. WOODWARD,.R. A. KILTIE, and C. T. MOORE. 1999. Mortality of American alligators attributed to cannibalism. Herpetologica. 67(2)(2011):174–185. HTML/PDF

 

DELANY, M. F., A. R. WOODWARD, and I. H. KOCHEL. 1988. Nuisance alligator food habits in Florida. Florida. Field Naturalist. 16:90–96. PDF

 

DINETS, V. 2013. Long-distance signaling in crocodilians. Copeia (3):517-526. OPTIONS

 

DINETS, V., J. C. BRUEGGEN, and J. D. BRUEGGEN. 2013. Crocodilians use tools for hunting. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution. 27(1). HTML/PDF

 

DUPONT, I. 2011. Commentary on the plight of the Beaver Run Reservoir alligator. Croc Journal. [Internet] [cited 1 June 2014]; 2 November 2011:7pp. Available from: http://www.crocjournal.net/Beaver Run Alligator.pdf. 7pp. PDF

 

DUPONT, I. 2013. Crocodilians on ice: how they survive freezing. Croc Journal. [Internet] [cited 1 June 2014]; 13 March 2013. Available from: http://www.crocjournal.net/Crocodilians on Ice - How they survive freezing.pdf. 3pp. PDF

 

DUPONT, I. 2013. 'Reggie' the alligator: time capsule. Croc Journal. [Internet] [cited 1 June 2014]; 30 April 2013:1p. Available from: http://www.crocjournal.net/Reggie the Alligator.pdf. 1p. PDF

 

DUPONT, I. 2017. Crocodilians in the "pet" trade. CrocJournal.com, [Internet] [cited 9 July 2017]. Available from:http://www.crocjournal.net/Crocodilians%20in%20the%20pet%20trade%20-%20Dupont.pdf. PDF

 

ELSEY, R. M. 2010. American Alligator Alligator mississippiensis. Pages 1-4 in Crocodiles. Status Survey and Action Plan. Third Edtion. S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson, eds. Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia: Crocodile Specialist Group. PDF

 

ELSEY, R. M., and A. R. WOODWARD. 2010. CSG Action Plan: American alligator Alligator mississippiensis. Pages 1-4 in Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Third Edition, S. C. Manolis and C. Stevenson, eds. Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia: Crocodile Specialist Group. PDF

 

ERICKSON, G. M., P. M. GIGNAC, S. J. STEPPAN, A. K. LAPPIN, K. A. VLIET, J. D. BRUEGGEN, B. D. INOUYE, D. KLEDZIK, and G. J. W. WEBB. 2012. Insights into the Ecology and Evolutionary Success of Crocodilians Revealed through Bite-Force and Tooth-Pressure Experimentation. PLoS ONE. 7(3):E31781. HTML/PDF

 

ERICKSON, G. M., A. K. LAPPIN, T. PARKER, and K. A. VLIET. 2003. Comparison of bite-force performance between long-term captive and wild captured American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Journal of Zoology. 262, 21-28. OPTIONS

 

ERICKSON, G. M, A. K. LAPPIN, and K. A. VLIET. 2003. The ontogeny of bite-force performance in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Journal of Zoology. 260:317-327. OPTIONS

 

FISH, F. E. 1984. Kinematics of undulatory swimming in the American alligator. Copeia. 4:839-843. OPTIONS

 

FISH, F. E., S. A. BOSTIC, A. J. NICASTRO, and J. T. BENESKI. 2007. Death roll of the alligator: Mechanics of twist feeding in water. The Company of Biologists. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 210, 2811-2818. HTML/PDF

 

FISH, F. E, and L. A. COSGROVE. 1987. Behavioral thermoregulation of small American alligators in water postural changes in relation to the thermal environment. Copeia 1987(3):804–807. OPTIONS

 

FLANDRY, F., E. J. LISECKI, G. J. DOMINGUE, R. L. NICHOLS,  D. L. GREER, and R. J. HADDAD, JR. 1989. Initial antibiotic therapy for alligator bites: Characterization of the oral flora of Alligator mississippiensis. Southern Medical Journal. 82(2):262-266. ABSTRACT

 

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FLORIDA FISH & WILDLIFE CONSERVATION COMMISSION. 2016. Alligator Bites on People in Florida (Last Updated September 2016). http://myfwc.com/media/310203/Alligator-GatorBites.pdf, [cited 12 November 2016]. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. PDF

 

FLORIDA FISH & WILDLIFE CONSERVATION COMMISSION. 2016. Alligator Regulations and Associated Statutes: 2016-2017. http://myfwc.com/media/1531908/alligator-rules-booklet.pdf, [cited 12 November 2016]. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. PDF

 

FLORIDA FISH & WILDLIFE CONSERVATION COMMISSION. 2017. Nonnative Reptiles: Spectacled caiman - Caiman crocodilus. [cited 12 November 2016]. Tallahassee, Florida.  Available from: http://myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/nonnatives/ reptiles/spectacled-caiman/. HTML

 

FOLK, M. J., A. J. WOODWARD, and M. G. SPALDING. 2014. Predation and scavenging by American alligators on whopping [sic] cranes and sandhill cranes in Florida. Southeastern Naturalist. 13(1):64-79. OPTIONS

 

GARRICK, L. D., and J. W. LANG. 1977. Social signals and behaviors of adult alligators and crocodiles. American Zoologist. 17, 225-239. OPTIONS

 

GARRICK, L. D., J.  W. LANG, and H. A. HERZOG, JR. 1978. Social Signals of Adult American Alligators. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 160(Article 3):37pp. PDF

 

GEC, J. 2016. Belgrade Zoo claims oldest captive American alligator. Associated Press (The Big Story), 5 August 2016 [cited 12 November 2016]. Available from: http://bigstory.ap.org/article/eae2cf7184014f73883ce94ebefe0619/ belgrade-zoo-claims-oldest-captive-american-alligator. HTML

 

GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES. [n.d.] Alligator Fact Sheet. [cited 18 March 2017]. Georgia Department of Natural Resources Wildlife Resources Division. Available from: http://www.georgiawildlife.org/

AlligatorFacts. HTML/PDF

 

GLASGOW, V. L. 1991. A Social History of the American Alligator: The Earth Trembles with His Thunder. New York, New York: St. Martin’s Press. 260pp.

 

GUILLETTE, L. J., JR., and M. R. MILNES. 2008. Alligator tales: new lessons about environmental contaminants from a sentinel species. BioScience. 58:1027–1036. MULTI-FORMAT

 

HICKS, J. W., and T. WANG. 2012. The functional significance of the reptilian heart: new insights into an old question. Pages 207-227 in Ontogeny and Phylogeny of the Vertebrate Heart, D. Sedmera and T. Wang, eds. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Springer Science and Business Media. OPTIONS

 

HORAN, J. 2015. NC state survey: Alligators on the rise, but vulnerable. NewsObserver.com, 4 February 2015, [cited 18 March 2017]. Available from: http://www.newsobserver.com/sports/outdoors/article10253345.html HTML

 

HUCHZERMEYER, F.W. 2003. Crocodiles: Biology, Husbandry and Diseases. Wallingford, England: CABI. 337pp.

 

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HUNT, R. H. 1987. Nest Excavation and Neonate Transport in Wild Alligator mississippiensis. Journal of Herpetology. 21(4):348-350. OPTIONS

 

HUNT, R. H. 1989. Predation on alligator nests in Okefenokee Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia, USA. Pages 74-78 in Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 8th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN - The World Conservation Union..204 pp.

 

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JACKSON, K., D. G. BUTLER, and D. R. BROOKS. 1996. Habitat and phylogeny influence salinity discrimination in crocodilians: implications for osmoregulatory physiology and historical biogeography. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 58:371-383. OPTIONS

 

JOANEN, T. 1969. Nesting ecology of alligators in Louisiana. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners. PDF

 

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JOANEN, T., L. MCNEASE, R. M. ELSEY, and M. A. STANTON. 1997. The Commercial Consumptive Use of the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) in Louisiana: Its Effects on Conservation. Pages 465-506 in Harvesting Wild Species: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation, C. H. Freese, ed. Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins University Press. 46-D506.

 

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LAURÉN, D. J. 1985. The effect of chronic saline exposure on the electrolyte balance, nitrogen metabolism, corticosterone titer in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 81. A(2):217-223. OPTIONS

 

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